Tacita Dean (born 1965) and George Seurat (1859-1881)
These are two very different artists, but have some similarities.
Dean works mainly with film, including drawing, photography and sound. She likes to utilise stories in her large chalk blackboard drawings, these are of Donald Crowhurst, an amateur English sailor whose ambition to enter a race to solo circumnavigate the globe ended in deception and tragedy. She also exploits the richness of the sea, lighthouses and ships.
Seurat was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman. Like Dean, he was highly motivated by the use of drawing media and for developing pointillism and Chromoluminarism, known as Divisionism. Divisionism is a style in modern art. It is the separation of colors into individual patches or dots that creates an optical interaction with the viewer’s eye once the colors are on the canvas. The colors used were pure, which were mixed optically when viewed.
Both artists use drawing to create monochrome images which reflect light and dark on different backgrounds, Dean’s on black and Seurat’s on white. Dean uses colour like Seurat, but her’s is the colour of 16 mm film, where as Seurat used a scientific approach to colour with a relationship to harmony and emotion. Both using soft and subtle tonal effects in their drawings.
George Seurat Landscape with Houses Artist:Georges Seurat (French, Paris 1859–1891 Paris) Date:1881–82 Medium:Conté crayon Dimensions:9 13/16 x 12 9/16 in. (24.9 x 31.9 cm)
O’Neil, similar to Dean and Seurat, is passionate about drawing. Her precise graphite images are about evolution, apocalypse, natural disaster and extinction, very surreal. Like Dean and Seurat, O’Neil’s subjects are illuminated by light and dark, with shadows and marks. Her compositions are unusual with floating figures in craggy and rolling landscapes. Compared to Dean, O’Neil also uses stories and personal memories to inform her art.
This artist works with graphite powder and rubber on paper. Twenty years ago Serse renounced colour in preference for pure drawing, very similar to Seurat. Serse’s passion for a drawing is intense, themes such as, cloudy skies, high mountains, snowy woods, seas without people occur from light and shadow. Serse’s drawing is analytic, detailed, intimate and extreme.
Paesaggio adottivo, 2016-2017, graphite on paper, 13 x 18 cm
I seem to have chosen artists with an extreme passion for drawing, this is because I love the light and dark contrasts they created and the differences in composition, use of materials and development of stories, memories with familiar landscape subjects being treated in large formats, that’s stunning to the eye.
Simon Faithfull (born 1966)
A British artist see the world as a sculptural object. He works with teams of scientists, technicians and transmission experts to help him develop a very personal view of the world. Since 2000 Faithfull has abandoned paper.
I was interested in his ‘Limbo Drawings’ which he makes from using an app on his iPhone called Limbo. These drawings are made of pixels, so this enables Faithfull to sketch the lines so they are ‘floating’ over the ground. In fact he only draws a part of the image too, so they are restricted in detail. Quite the opposite of say, Serse’s detailed drawing. Faithfull’s new drawings are always dispatched to the world via the Limbo service and added to a growing database which has all of Faithfull’s drawings to date.
Assignment 2. Feedback from Corinna Till dated 22th November 2018 My Reflections
I feel the feedback was positive and constructive, giving me the encouragement to reflect on my work.
I was really annoyed with myself for not sending in to my tutor two pieces of work, which were a big mixed media shell drawing, and a large pencil drawing of my hall. Next time I will be more positive with my art pieces, and send in larger art works. However I was happy that I had the opportunity to show Corinna these pictures via a video call. Overall Comments from my tutor ‘It was exciting to see how you worked with the new subject matter of domestic spaces, after the still life exercises. You made a lot of fresh, quick sketches, full of many possibilities and were able to successfully develop some of your images of interiors through repeated attempts at the same view. Your consideration of shifts in light and dark, and how much space and detail to include and leave out, were productive lenses through which to develop your compositions.’
Drawing the ‘At Home’ exercises were brilliant, and I loved doing them. I chose loose wet India ink and a Reed pen to draw with, as it gave me fluid lines and chances to make deep and light shadows, which I saw in my home. Assignment 2
I found working for Assignment 2 very difficult, and it took me a long time, till I actually did the work. Basically I just didn’t know what to draw, plus the brief asked for a lot of different elements and choosing the right ones proved to be very difficult.
Harold’s Chair seemed a good choice to explore as it was in a room with a variety of light and dark shadows. But I chose to draw in coloured crayons, I used this medium as I had already used India ink and a Reed pen in Assignment 1 and wanted to show my drawing skills in a different way.
I do agree with my tutor, about the use of coloured crayons, ‘We talked about how the coloured crayons used for your final piece were quite difficult to use and perhaps these crayons didn’t offer the best range of colour or tonal variation. We didn’t talk about the paper. The paper you used seems to have been a really good choice, the natural colour supporting your depictions of soft light.’
Throughout this course you are encouraged to draw with coloured crayons, which I though I would try. I found them very hard to work with and yes, getting a range of tones out of them very difficult to do. I now see how mixing pencil with coloured crayon did muddy the lines and muted the overall picture.
However, drawing in ink gave me the opportunity to express tonal values of different colours. So my sketchbook work and inky drawings were successful because of the medium I used. Art decisions are hard sometimes. Trying to chose the’right’ medium is harder, some of my drawings came out really strong and some quite weak, it’s made me realise how artists work at making long term decisions about their process and outcomes.
As for my Assignment 2, I did research William Scott’s still life art, as I though it would help me with drawing the table next to the chair including still life objects. I did quite few sketches of the round table, apples and jug in my sketchbook, and looking back at them now, I could make a new piece of work just from the table and still life. (I make a lino cut print in mixed media of a table with objects).
‘Harold’s Chair in pink ink on paper
Harold’s old chair and kitchen view
Project 3 – At Home ‘Exercise 1 – Quick sketches around home – A set of fluid and exciting images using reed pen and different coloured inks. The combination of two domestic views on one page, using two distinct ink colours, one for each view, has opened up plenty of possibilities. – The details of how the different views meet on the page are interesting in each case. There are resonances between the two halves of the images. For example, in one image a fridge door in grey is paired with the front door, seen from inside, in dark yellow. The two door shapes work well together. – In our conversation you spoke about preferring this subject matter to the isolated, set up, ‘still lives’. Interesting, as many of the same types of objects are present, but arranged here within the context of rooms and lived-in space.’
My most successful drawing was a double sketch I did of Harold’s Chair in pink ink along side a drawing of my kitchen. I works well and was totally spontaneous !! The series of inky drawings just flowed and I went with it. I even did some of the garden.
I did experiment with different formats, i.e. landscape and portrait styles, which enabled the recording of different views around the home.
Fridge and front door view
Kitchen sink and kitchen view
Harold’s old chair and kitchen view
Light fittings, door knobs and the like drawn in ink and wash.
Exercise 2 – Composition – an interior ‘- Two black and white pastel images, one ‘portrait’ format and one ‘landscape’. In both images you have used the pastel ‘simply’ and boldly. – Especially in the upstairs landing view, the light in the image is effective, as it is seen coming round the ajar door. – Nice sketches in black ink, experimenting with cropping views of your bathroom, chest of drawers, toilet, and looking down stairs in to hall. – Again, good use of ‘Natural’ coloured paper.’
I drew with pastel on pastel paper to make these drawings and really enjoyed it. Pastel is a medium I’ve not explored very much. But I felt they helped me to expressed the light and composition of the upstairs views with ease and sensitivity.
Top landing in pastel tones
Looking downstairs in pastel tones
Exercise 3 – Material differences ‘- A2 pencil and graphite drawing of a view down the stairs. – We both agreed this is a very successful drawing. It is informed by your previous images of this view in pastel and ink, and you have developed the image further, especially in the attention given to qualities of light as it comes through three doors into the downstairs hallway. The light on the stairs is also nice. As a viewer I feel invited into the space and to appreciate the various throws of light.’
This is the drawing I didn’t send in and glad to have shown via a video call. I wasn’t very keen on it when I made it, and felt, technically it was a bit poor. But after talking to my tutor could see that I have captured the light from three doors that reflected over the hall floor, was, in fact, a successful drawing. I drew this with a very soft pencil and it took me a couple of hours to do. Feeling pleased now.
Project 2 – Still Life Exercise 1 – Still life using line ‘- You developed an ink and pastel drawing into a long format zig-zag book of hag stones. The zig-zag format offers a sensation of the hag stones spread out in a horizontal, low down, landscape and this seems to suit the subject matter. – After our tutorial I looked again at your zig-zag book of oyster shells in your sketch book. They are rich and lively in the way they are made up of loose texture and colour, and almost feel like portraits of individual oyster shells.’
Drawing my Hag Stones was great fun. I put them in a zig-zag format as I had spread my vast collection out on a table, and it took me back to Cromer beach where I had collected them. The scene is vast and full of texture and contrast. So the zig-zag seem a great way to display the drawings for the viewer to feel like you are there looking at the stones.
The Oyster shells and in fact all my natural objects are quite personal to me and that’s probably why they come out as ‘portraits’.
Exercise 2 – Still life, tone using colour ‘- For your still life on a window sill, including Pikachu, you used coloured crayons. These crayons don’t seem to have offered you an optimum range or versatility of colour and tone. – It could be worth redoing this exercise about tone using colour. Perhaps there is a way to approach this ‘still life’ as well, informed by your sketches around the home, so that the set-up is of more interest to you.’
I do agree with my tutor and will re-draw this exercise. I liked my subject and objects, but again I used coloured crayons, which did not give the tonal effects asked in the brief.
Exercise 3 – Mixed media
Yes, for me, this was a frustrating exercise in this course. I tried many versions, a pen and watercolour drawing, a large paper and pen still life and finally a large shell (inspiration from my 50 Drawings in Four Hours exercise) all using ‘mixed media’ such as paper, inks and the like. I also made a lino cut on a collage too. I tried everything I knew and I still don’t like mixed media formats. I could have drawn and painted all my work as individual pieces, without the stress of ‘making’ and using mixed media items. All I can do is congratulate myself for trying so hard and producing some work.
However, the very activity of cutting out is something I enjoy, it’s physical and instead of drawing lines, the scissors do the guiding and making of the shapes which can be uniform or very abstract. Matisse cut out coloured paper to make wonderful art pieces.
Second attempt at a background
Still life in watercolour,wax and felt pen.
Still life on collage
Exercise 4 – Monochrome ‘- Two very different uses of materials, both successful in their own ways. – A still life of bottles in watercolour with wax highlights and gaps in paint used to create light. You had looked at Morandi and practised some of his attention to exactly how objects stand together. – White ink on black paper used to draw shells, created a lace-like effect, which is effective. It reads more like a design as the background is flat black and doesn’t address how the shells relate in space.’
The bottles in the monochrome image was joyful to paint. Watercolour techniques are my strongest skill and even though this didn’t stretch me too much, the effect of loose washes and gaps for highlights works to explain the light on the bottles.
My tutor has recommended looking at Rene Magritte, as I had researched Tang Yau Hoong. I quite like humour in art and it’s probably why I chose to draw Pikachu in exercise 2-Still Life, tone and colour. So I will look at Magritte’s art. I really spent sometime reading about Morandi, and saw some of his work in The British Museum in August. I was very interested in the way he moved is objects around until he ‘got’ a composition worthy of painting.
I have already followed up Lee Lozano and Majolica ceramic technique, but will put it in my blog.
For me to do I agree with my tutor; Strengths Your drawings done in location directly from life, for example, domestic scenes, are particularly strong
Successful development of subtle shifts of light and dark areas within images of domestic interiors, e.g. in your several versions of a view looking down the stairs.
Drawing the home was my favourite exercise to do. And I worked hard to look at light and dark tones to describe the house.
Areas of Development The exercise on colour and tone was done with crayons which didn’t seem to offer much tonal depth. It could be worth doing this exercise again with more tonal variation, perhaps using a different medium.
Totally agree and I will re-draw Assignment 2 and exercise 2-Still life, tone using colour.
I want to explore drawing with pastels and more textures in ink.
Assignment 1. Feedback from Corinna Till dated 26th August 2018 My Reflections
I feel the feedback was positive and constructive, giving me the encouragement to reflect on my work. Tutor feedback comments. ‘From the first exercise onwards it is clear you approach your work with a wide and inventive selection of tools and materials. You let materials play a role and surprise you with unpredictable results which are partly in and out of your control. You comment on being watched by your daughter during the expressive line making exercise and her responses to seeing you involved this an intense activity. You took your experiments further by videoing yourself drawing, thereby making it possible for other people to watch you in the act of drawing.’
I enjoyed making some quick films of myself drawings shells and jug, which helped me to construct my work and see it in a different way. With drawing I am always trying to find a new ways to move the material over the paper, whether using a piece of charcoal, pastel or a stick and ink. It does not worry me, if people watch me draw, in fact I find it quite exciting and I love to see and feel people’s reactions to it. For me it’s part of the drawing experience.
My use of ink with stick/twig and Reed Pen is a method I have practised for years and is my favourite medium. I like the way the stick judders and makes and unpredictable lines, the way the ink splatters and blobs on the surface is very satisfying too. I am very influenced by the drawings of Van Gogh and find his mark making very beautiful and energetic. How did that man make so many marks with such simple art tools? I don’t think he was a ‘mad’ artist, just a very experimental one.
Reed Pen and Acrylic Ink
Mark making like Van Gogh using a Reed Pen and Ink.
Equally I love the work of Cy Twombly, his very expressive and enormous paintings fill me with such emotion and energy. That’s why I had a go at creating a red mark making picture using a scourer. I wanted to experience his movements, but mine was on a small scale.
Tutor feedback comments Project 2 – basic shapes and fundamental form Ex.1 Groups of objects ‘You chose two groups of objects, one based on cylinders (ink pots) and one on rectangular forms (including dice). As this exercise was encouraging a certain accuracy in the representation of relationships between objects, it could have helped to use pencil (or something else easily rubbed out) in order to set out the objects while making adjustments towards the final shapes and positions of the objects. I enjoy the ink depicting itself, running out of the ink bottle at the front. The dice look inviting. The objects could have been more accurately placed in space, and in relation to each other, and I agree with your comments that there could be more indication of the ground and background in these two images.’
I agree with my tutor that I need to re-draw this exercise, and use soft pencil and rubber to draw with.
Assignment 1- Tutor feedback comments ‘In your India ink and chop stick drawing, I enjoy how the table top has become like a body of water. You say, ‘like calm water in a pool’. To me it feels more choppy, more like the sea. I note your enjoyment of how the watery qualities of the medium, working ‘wet in wet’, have produced a watery image. Although you didn’t set out to create this effect exactly, you did knowingly set up the conditions in which it could happen, were open to being surprised by the materials, and it worked. It is very useful to be able to see the two images of shells you have submitted together and to read your reflections on how they compare. Following your reflections on the first image, in your second image, heavier paper has prevented cockling. There is a sense of brighter light and being able to see the shells better. You have used watercolours to create mid tones. In comparison to the first ink image, you refer to your watercolour and pen image, as a more ‘formal still life on a work bench’. It does have less fluidity than the first image. However, it offers a richer experience of the surface qualities of the shells, their colour, detail and texture. In the first image some of the marks on the shells are not quite accurate enough to allow us to appreciate some of the qualities of the shells. In the second image the big shell, top left, seems particularly successful in the way colour and line combine to create the shell’s surface. In the other two main big shells the black pen line exists as somewhat of a layer over the washes of colour beneath. It is worth asking why these lines are in black pen, when they could alternatively have been made using one, or more, of the colours that make up the shell. Both images have strengths and areas that could be developed. If you are interested in reworking this piece you could try combining the successful qualities of each image. I see you have already taken strides forward working with shells and other objects in the next section, so it may not be necessary to your progress to rework this particular still life, as you can take your reflections and feedback forward to what you are working on now.’
Assignment 1. Reflection
I did submit two drawings, as I felt conflicted with the results of my first picture. However both drawings had different results, which made me even more puzzled.
My first drawing, which was mainly created with black India ink and stick was of shells on a bench, it has a moodier feel with a choppy moving background. I agree that I should of used heavier paper to prevent cockling. My second picture, drawn in black pen and watercolour washes, is a lot more open and lighter, and as I described a more ‘formal drawing’. My conflicts came from deciding how to interpret the brief, and how to describe my skills and creativity in my work. I am a fairly good watercolour artist and wanted to show that, hence the second picture, but on reflection I have decided that I prefer the first one I drew, and must have courage in my art decisions.
As a result I did an exercise from ‘Experimental Drawing’ by Robert Kaupelis, Nonstop-50 Drawings in Four Hours, page 119. In which I drew 50 shells in a variety of mediums. I did this exercise to see how far I could push myself with drawing, and a way of using the shell focus in further work, which I did for Part 2.
I am not sure if I will re-draw this exercise again, as I don’t really know a way forward with it just yet.
Shells in Ink
Shells in watercolour, wax and pen
I enjoy keeping sketchbooks as I feel they are a way of ‘drawing out’ my thoughts and ideas, plus keeping a record of artist research too. Research
I take part in a lot of research, I enjoy visiting many London exhibitions and those locally too. I am member of the Tate, and can get to their exhibitions easily. I also research online and read books. For me it is important to look at other artists work and their practise, it helps me to inform my own art and feed my interest in working artists materials and influences. Learning Log
Keeping a learning log (blog) is a new experience for me. So even though I feel quite confident at setting it up, I am still learning about it. I have used Vimeo to show my videos too, which has been fun and I am sure I will use again.
My tutor gave me a suggested reading list; Suggested reading/viewing Raoul Dufy, for the way he draws and paints into blocks of colour. Winifred Nicholson, for her still lives which often include landscape. Ellen Altfest, for her intense observation of surfaces. There are some videos about her work at the bottom of her page on the White Cube gallery website [http://whitecube.com/artists/ artist/ellen_altfest]. Nicholas Party, for his colourful and simplified still lives. Luchita Hurtado, for her still lives in relation to her body, and interior and exterior spaces. William Kentridge, for his use of drawing in animation [https://www.sfmoma.org/williamkentridge-transformation-with-animation/].
I have researched these artists and recorded my findings in my sketchbook. I found Nicholas Party very interesting, as he draws with pastel, a medium I have only just started to use. Also his work is of still life objects, which is useful information for Part 2.
Raoul Dufy, Winifred Nicholson and Nicholas Party explore colour and I found this very interesting, as I think using colour can be difficult in the context of drawing media. However I am keen to try colour experiments.
For me to do I agree with my tutor; Strengths
Very good knowledge of and facility with a
wide range of materials and techniques along
with openness and willingness to experiment.
I do have a wide range of materials here at home, plus a good source of books and internet to work from. I love to experiment with art mediums and want to do more.
Areas for Development
You could benefit from redoing project 2,
exercise 1, (groups of objects) working with a
medium that can be easily rubbed out and
accurately adjusted, really taking your time
until you are happy with your drawing.
I will redo this exercise.
I will also review my work using the assessment criteria in the course notes.
During a day out in St Albans Market Place I made a variety of different sketches in pencil of buildings in the Market Place area. The Market Place area has a combination of Tudor buildings and modern day ones. I did focus on the Tudor building as it’s quite an interesting shape.
St Albans in pencil
St Albans in pencil
St Albans in pencil
St Albans Market Place in pencil
In my sketchbook I made some notes on colour, Market Place had blues, blacks, whites, reds, greys and greens. It was a clear sunny day, then became slightly overcast, Time about 11 am, a few people around, but otherwise quiet. One or two vehicles parked, but usually it’s a limited parking area. There were some deep shadows on one side of the street. The Gables building has a traditional black and white facade, with glass shop fronts and a door in the middle. Tiled roof with over hanging guttering painted black.
My final drawings I made on one sheet of paper, that can go inside a sketchbook. I drew an old Tudor building called The Gables, now a shop called Jack Wills.
The picture below shows how I drew some details in squares and then made some further sketches of the building, including a side view.
Exercise 2 Study of a townscape using line
In my sketchbook I drew a section from The Gables building going up the street in the Market Place, using my sketches and some photos as reference, I drew with a fine black pen. Whats nice about a fine pen is the detail you can get. So I added tiles and shading to create shadows. I also cropped the drawing, which I think is a better composition.
Exercise 3 Limited palette study
I re-drew The Gables building in ink and painted it with three watercolour colours, Sepia, Ochre and Black, using the white of the paper for my lightest colour. I chose a side view as it showed more of the building’s windows and shape.
Exercise 4 Statues
St Albans is lacking in statues, so I drew some from a recent visit to London, The British Museum and some small stone statues at a local garden centre.
Stone statues in ink
Stone Statues in ink
Looking at statues at my local garden centre, I drew these small stone statues quickly with a black Sharpie Pen, just shading in with loose lines the shadows and grooves.
I also did some quick sketching of famous women statues, found around London. I painted over my lines with Paynes Grey watercolour washes to capture the deep dark shadows. I thought they looked quite ghostly.
Finally I drew some Greek statues found in The British Museum. This time I drew in pencil on a coffee ground background.
Drawing 1. Project 2. Expanse. Research Point page 66. Research some historic and contemporary artists who work in series with the landscape. You may already be familiar with works my Monet, Cezanne and David Hockney. Look also at work by Peter Doig, John Virtue and other younger artists working today. For example Nicholas Herbert’s series of drawings of the Chiltern Hills at http://nicholasherbert.wordpress.com/tag/contemporary-landscape-drawing/ John Virtue (born 1947)
John Virtue is a British artist who paints landscapes in monochrome tones. He was born in Accrington, Lancashire and trained at The Slade School of Art from 1965 to 1969. He is well know for his ‘London Paintings’ which were displayed at The National Gallery. Virtue only uses black and white, he sees colour as a ‘distraction’. His materials are usually shellac black ink and white paint.
As he has moved from Britain to Italy, then Britain to North Norfolk, his work is in cycles. That means, his art at The National Gallery focused mainly on the London skyline. This included 360 mono types in 2006-07. His moved to Norfolk generated another cycle of paintings about shore and sea. In 1988 his ten year cycle of Lancashire paintings were exhibited in London, Manchester and Los Angeles. He exhibits regularly in Sydney, Australia. Virtue has expressed his admiration for the seventeen century Dutch landscape painters and those of J.M.W.Turner.
Therese Oulton (born 1953)
I was looking for a female landscape artist and found Therese Oulton’s work, but not much information about the artist herself. But found this quote……
‘British painter and print maker, born in Shrewsbury. She originally studied anthropology, but she was so impressed by a chance visit to an exhibition of Morris Louis’s Veil paintings that she took up art, first studying at evening classes and then full-time at St Martin’s School of Art, London, 1975–9, and the Royal College of Art, 1980–83. In 1984 she had her first solo show, at Gimpel Fils Gallery, London, and she very quickly established a considerable reputation with her sombre, richly worked abstract or semi-abstract paintings. They are often seen as evoking landscape or architectural forms, and Oulton has even been discussed in terms of the British tradition of landscape painting. The paintings, however, also relate to the invocations of sublime landscape in Abstract Expressionists such as Rothko or later artists such as Per Kirkeby and Anselm Kiefer. Oulton has also produced lithographs and mono types.’ From http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100257223 Additional reading from; http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/feb/28/germaine-greer-therese-oulton-landscapes
In 2010 Oulton had an exhibition called ‘Territory’ in which she showed 24 small landscape format images, which was different from her usual very large works. These landscapes explore light, surface, texture, geography and landscape.
Tacita Dean OBE RA ( born 1965)
An English artist who works mainly in film. Nominated for the Turner Prize in 1998 and elected to the Royal Academy of Arts in 2008. Beside film, she works in drawing, photography and sound. During the 1990’s the sea was her main theme and she explored the story of Donald Crowhurst and his tragic sailing voyage. Dean uses 16 mm film, she spent time living and filming in Germany. Recently Dean has been capturing famous thinkers and artists on film.
‘The Roaring Forties: Seven Boards in Seven Days’ is a series of chalk board by Dean. These have a sense of the black and white classic cinema scenes. The series, on Masonite panels painted with black paint, and drawn in white chalk are eight foot square size. Dean used old photographs as reference, and they show the southern Atlantic ocean between 40 and 50 degrees latitude, which has gale force winds. Dean gave herself seven days to draw seven boards, linking this to how films are made, and how the drawing process is edited like film is. Hence making a story board or narrative.
David Hockney OM CH RA (born 1937-)
David Hockney is an English painter, draftsman, print maker, stage designer and photographer. He is considered one of the most influential British artists of the 20th century.
Hockney is famous for his exhibition and work called The Bigger Picture, where he painted the East Yorkshire Wolds, the place where he was born and grew up. The exhibition at The Royal Academy showed oil paintings, iPad paintings, collages, charcoal drawings, digital videos and sketches all based on landscapes in Yorkshire.
During is vast career Hockney has made many series of works about swimming pools, animals, people, still life and landscapes in the UK and America.
Georgia O’Keeffe ( Born 1887 – 1986)
O’Keeffe was an American artist who was known for her large paintings of flowers, New York skyscrapers and New Mexico landscapes. Trained at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She felt constrained by her lessons that required her to copy rather than develop her own style. After many years of teaching, O’Keeffe met Arthur Wesley Dow who taught that copying does not develop personal style in design and art. This was a turning point for O’Keeffe and she started a series of watercolours and dramatic charcoal drawings, which led to her abstract style.
Meeting Alfred Stieglitz in 1918, who encouraged he to become a full time artist, she started a series of landscape paintings of New Mexico. Eventually moving full time to Santa Fe, O’Keeffe collected rocks and stones, which were incorporated into her landscapes.
Peter Doig (Born 1959)
A Scottish painter who lives in Trinidad. Famous for his painting ‘White Canoe’ which sold for a record £5.7 million in 2007. Doig’s paintings are landscapes, but very abstract. He gets his inspiration from photographs, newspaper clippings, movie scenes, record album covers and works by Edvard Munch. His work is not realistic, but based in what he ‘takes’ from the photograph. In 1994 he created a series of urban structures based on derelict Le Cobrusier’s modernist living apartments called ‘Concrete Cabins’.
Monet the most famous French Impressionist painter and prolific artist of his time. The term ‘impressionism’ is derived from the title of one of his oil paintings, ‘Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise) of 1874. Monet spent his life painting the French countryside, by painting the same scene many times to capture the light changes and the seasons. In 1883 Monet moved to Giverny, where he became famous for painting his water lilies and Japanese bridge, which appeared in his large paintings. This subject occupied him for over twenty years of his life.
Paul Cezanne ( 1839-1906)
Cezanne was a Post-Impressionist painter, much admired by Matisse and Picasso, making him the ‘father of us all’. Cezanne painted few subjects, those being landscape, still life and bathers. He was interested in ‘simplifying’ the subject into cone, cylinder or cone shapes. He painted with careful, repetitive and exploratory brushstrokes. He studied subjects closely using planes of colour to build up the picture plane.
Cezanne is to have formed a bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and early 20th century ‘Cubism’.
Even though Cezanne exhibited, he was not well received in France. So Cezanne chose to work in increasing artistic isolation, usually painting in the south of France, in his beloved Provence, far from Paris.
In 1897 he climbed Montagne Sainte-Victoire, there he stayed in a cabin and painted extensively the landscape. It is understood that’s how his ‘Cubist’ style started.
Cezanne immortalized the Provençal countryside with his broad, panoramic views. Often these are framed in branches, sometimes with architectural elements, but seldom with human activity. These too are still life. Cezanne’s landscapes were not painted in the open air, as were those of the Impressionists, nor were they captured first with a camera. He composed the pictures the way he wanted them — arranging the trees and the houses, probably gleaned from his sketchbooks, on the canvas in the configurations he decided upon.’ From https://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/land/
Sir Michael Craig-Martin is an Irish-born contemporary conceptual artist and painter. He is known for developing the Young British Artists, many of whom he taught, and for his conceptual artwork, An Oak Tree. He is Emeritus Professor of Fine Art at Goldsmiths.
In the 1960’s he made box-like constructions. Later he moved to the use of ordinary household objects. In the late 1970’s he began to make line drawings of ordinary objects, creating over the years an ever-expanding vocabulary of images which form the basis of his work to this day. During the 1990’s the focus of his work shifted over to painting, with the same range of boldly outlined motifs and vivid color schemes applied both to works on canvas, and to increasingly complex installations of wall paintings. From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Craig-Martin
Gary Hume is an English artist. Hume’s work is strongly identified with the Young British Artists who came to the front in the early 1990’s. Nominated for the Turner Prize in 1996. Hume lives and works in London and New York. Hume has become known for depicting everyday subjects using high-gloss industrial paints. His earliest notable works are his ‘door paintings’ which are life-size representations of hospital doors.
Hume abandoned doors in the mid-1990’s, turning to paintings in household gloss paint on aluminium panel, for these he often used appropriated images, including pictures of celebrities and animals. Their forms and colours were dramatically simplified, with people being reduced to just two or three colours. Snowman in 1996 is made up of three shades of red, showing a circle on top of a larger circle against a lighter background. At first, Hume used mainly bright colours, but later pieces have used more muted tones.
In 1999 at the Venice Biennale he exhibited his ‘Water’ series these were line drawings of women painted with gloss paint on aluminium panels.
Water Painting, 1999, Tate Collection. Part of Hume’s “Water” Series of paintings.
I chose this young artist, who I found online, his work in mainly based in positive and negative drawings. Tang Yau Hoong is an artist, illustrator, graphic designer living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He creates art that is conceptual, surreal and fun in a simplistic and unique way. He works with various clients for advertising, editorial, and many other design projects.
His art is very playful and he uses perspective to describe his work too. I love this image below as he uses the negative space to make the sky look like a face.
In my sketch book I drew these exercises on-one point perspective and two point perspective. This is a view through a doorway with a mat showing lines lead off to a ‘vanishing point’ in the distance
Below are three sketches showing one point perspective drawn on squared paper. All lines should ‘recede’ into the distance, hence making the items larger in the foreground and smaller in the distance.
The page below is from my sketch book showing that Lowry used one point perspective in is paintings.
Exercise 2 Angular perspective
Not an easy one to draw, so I drew a building on squared paper to demonstrate two point perspective.
Here are some additional three point and fish eye perspective drawings.
Three point perspective
Looking up and down three point perspective
Fish eye perspective
Exercise 3 Aerial or atmospheric perspective
Atmospheric perspective is when the natural weather elements effect the appearance of the view, i.e. when mountains at different planes look further away due to light and dark contrasts. Blues recede. Same goes for a sunset when the colours scatter and shift them forward. Reds and oranges are foreground colours.
Here are some excerpts from my sketch book.
J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) was brilliant at painting ‘atmospheric’ land and seascapes. I have painted some atmospheric images on A 3 sized watercolour paper, with loose watercolour washes and a big brush, to demonstrate how abstract the land and seascape can become. My technique for watercolour painting is ‘wet in wet’, which is a very loose and difficult to control, but makes wonderful painterly effects.
I fully understand the principles of landscape perspective and really enjoyed drawing the instructional sketches and painting the loose atmospheric images..